Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Timothy. R.; Latham, David W.; Chaplin, William J.; Handberg, Rasmus; Huber, Daniel; Kipping, David M.; Payne, Matthew J.; Jiang, Chen; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Stello, Dennis; Sliski, David H.; Ciardi, David R.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Davies, Guy R.; Hekker, Saskia; Kjeldsen, Hans; Kuszlewicz, James S.; Everett, Mark E.; Howell, Steve B.; Basu, Sarbani; Campante, Tiago L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Karoff, Christoffer; Kawaler, Steven D.; Lund, Mikkel N.; Lundkvist, Mia; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Calkins, Michael L.; Berlind, Perry
Kepler-432: A Red Giant Interacting with One of its Two Long-period Giant Planets,
The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 803, Issue 2
We report the discovery of Kepler-432b, a giant planet (Mb=5.41-0.18+0.32 MJup, Rb=1.145-0.039+0.036 RJup) transiting an evolved star (M∗=1.32-0.07+0.10 M⊙, R∗=4.06-0.08+0.12 R⊙) with an orbital period of Pb=52.501129-0.000053+0.000067 days. Radial velocities (RVs) reveal that Kepler-432b orbits its parent star with an eccentricity of e=0.5134-0.0089+0.0098, which we also measure independently with asterodensity profiling (AP; e=0.507-0.114+0.039), thereby confirming the validity of AP on this particular evolved star. The well-determined planetary properties and unusually large mass also make this planet an important benchmark for theoretical models of super-Jupiter formation.
Long-term RV monitoring detected the presence of a non-transiting outer planet (Kepler-432c; Mc sin ic=2.43-0.24+0.22 MJup, Pc=406.2-2.5+3.9 days), and adaptive optics imaging revealed a nearby (0.87″), faint companion (Kepler-432B) that is a physically bound M dwarf. The host star exhibits high signal-to-noise ratio asteroseismic oscillations, which enable precise measurements of the stellar mass, radius, and age. Analysis of the rotational splitting of the oscillation modes additionally reveals the stellar spin axis to be nearly edge-on, which suggests that the stellar spin is likely well aligned with the orbit of the transiting planet. Despite its long period, the obliquity of the 52.5 day orbit may have been shaped by star-planet interaction in a manner similar to hot Jupiter systems, and we present observational and theoretical evidence to support this scenario. Finally, as a short-period outlier among giant planets orbiting giant stars, study of Kepler-432b may help explain the distribution of massive planets orbiting giant stars interior to 1 AU.
Key words: asteroseismology / planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: gaseous planets / planet–star interactions / stars: individual: Kepler-432